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Background: Dengue fever is a rapidly emerging arthropod born viral disease threatening to become an international
public health problem. It is receiving attention all over the world for its epidemic expansion and high mortality rate.
Globally, approximately 50-100 million cases of dengue fever occur and 500,000 people suffer from dengue hemorrhagic
fever and dengue shock syndrome with 20,000 deaths annually. Pakistan is at high risk of being hit by large epidemics
because of many factors and conditions that promote the spread of infectious diseases and consequently every year a
large number of epidemics occur in different parts of the country. It appears to be emerging in Peshawar in recent years.
Objectives: Objective of this study was to look into the risk factors associated with the development of the recent
outbreak of dengue fever in Peshawar.
Materials and Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was carried out at three teaching hospitals of Peshawar
during January to October 2015. Data was collected from 84 patients who came to different units of the hospitals with
suspected Dengue fever. Questionnaire was used to collect data from the conveniently selected subjects.
Results: Out of the total of 84 patients, 49 were adult males, 30 were females and 5 children. Age of the patients
ranged from 13 to 53 years with a mean of 33 ± 12 years. Dengue Serology was positive in 56 (67.69 %). Source of
water supply was found associated with dengue seropositivity (p=0.002) but no significant statistical association of
seropositivity was found with demographic variables.
Conclusion: Source of water is a determinant of contracting dengue fever owing to it a breeding media for Ades Agyptes
mosquitoes. All other phenomena associated with use of water and sanitation needs to be part of long term control of
dengue that will also contribute to controlling other diseases with the same determinants.
Key words: Dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, dengue shock syndrome, water sources, epidemic, outbreak

Zahoor Ahmed1
Ikram ud din3,
Ghulam Sarwar3
Muhammad Noor4
Journal Issue: